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中国dafa888娱乐场下载National Museum of China / gmp

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View from the entrance of the Forbidden City with the Chinese National Museum on the left
Author: Christian Gahl

The conversion and extension of the Chinese National Museum
combines the former Chinese History Museum with the Chinese
Revolutionary 博物馆。 Completed in 1959 as one of ten important
public buildings in Tian’anmen Square, in direct proximity to
the Forbidden City, the museum still constitutes a milestone in
history of modern Chinese 解释学。

Outline schemes for the conversion and extension project were
invited from ten international architectural firms, the proposal by
architects von 格尔坎, Marg and Partners (GMP) together with
CABR of Beijing being adjudged preferred bidder, ahead of Foster
and Partners, Kohn Pedersen Fox, OMA and Herzog & de 默隆

The original submission by gmp envisaged gutting the existing
博物馆。 The central block would be removed, and the large
space thereby created spanned by a bronze flying roof linking the
old building and the 延伸。 The flying roof was planned to
house the main exhibition on Chinese history, with a direct view
towards the sights of the 城市。 Following a discussion with the
client and Chinese architectural experts, this scheme was revised,
with the aim of integrating more of the external impact of the old
building in the new building, though without abolishing the immediately
obvious distinction between old and 新的。 This would
allow the building itself to illustrate the continuity of 历史。

The task was to combine the northern and southern wings into
an integral complex of buildings by removing the central structure
to make the Chinese National 博物馆。

The 260 m (850结算)-long hall acts as its central access 面积。 It widens
in the centre to embrace the existing central front entrance
facing Tian’anmen 正方形的 The ‘forum’ thus created acts as a vestibule
and multifunctional events area, with all auxiliary service
functions for the public attached – cafes and teahouses, bookshops
and souvenir shops, and ticket offices and 厕所。

The classic tripartite division of China’s historical buildings governs
the design of the ‘forum’ as 好。 A stone base serves as a
platform for a wooden structure, with a coffered roof structure
resting on a DCB layer on top of it. Despite the vastness of the
‘forum’, a homely atmosphere was sought, particularly in the harmonious
use of materials – local granite on the ground floor and
walls of the base layer and wooden cladding in the gallery 面积。

The main entrance of the museum continues to be oriented towards
the west, but, for the first time, the north and south entrances
are linked via the ‘forum’. This space helps visitors to
orientate, and all public areas of the almost 200,000 m² (2,066 m
sq. 结算) building are accessed from 在嗨。

The dimensions of the ‘forum’ also relate to the sheer size of
Tian’anmen Square and the size of the building 自行。 Around
8–10m people a year are expected to visit the National 博物馆。
The architectural shape of the space is a contemporary interpretation
of traditional elements of Chinese 解释。 This is already
evident in the west courtyard, accessed via broad steps reminiscent
of the steps in front of the temple precincts in the Forbidden
City just round the 隐蔽处。

The western entrance of the existing building, the Mengguobao
facing Tian’anmen Square, is notable for its series of slender pillars,
linked with each other by an entablature on the pattern of
temple and palace architecture, with the roof structure resting on
it. The west facade of the new building is planned analogously,
the ‘dougong’ resting on its supports and carrying a prominent
projecting 屋顶。 In historical Chinese architecture, the ‘dougong’
is a slightly projecting feature of bearings and joist ends.

The materiality of the roof, which in the Forbidden City and the
existing building consisted of glazed roofing shingle in imperial
yellow, is 重行解读 with slightly curved, bronze-coloured
metal 盘子。 This meant the flighted roof typologies of the buildings
in Tian’anmen Square and the Forbidden City were continued
in the new building, yet interpreted in a contemporary fashion in
the detail and 资料。

The entrance doors to the new buildings consist of perforated
bronze plates that filter incidental daylight and thus produce a
muted atmosphere in the interior, such as is peculiar to traditional
Chinese buildings with their ornamented window 暮色。

The motif of perforation was inspired by an ancient bronze panelone
of the prize items among the one million works of art that
make up the National Museum 搜集。 This ornamentation
also recurs in the forming of the balustrades in the interiors of
the 博物馆。

The north wing facing Chang’an Avenue contains the exhibition
relating to the modern history of China, while the south wing
houses the administration and 藏书楼。 In the new building, the
main exhibition areas are distributed over four superimposed stories
north and south of the central hall, where state receptions,
banquets and similar events are 停止。 Below the central hall is a
cinema and a theater, an events room with fixed tiered seating
installed, in which not only lectures but – with the planned
acoustics – also classical concerts and other 鉴于表演场地 events
can be 停止。 The base level and basements contain the museum’s
workshops and laboratories, depositories and underground

The harmonious use of materials in the interiors – wood, stone
and glass – is found throughout the building, creating a natural
feeling of identity and 熟识。 Rooms of special significance
are emphasized by the use of differentiated 资料。 Thus the
central hall opposite the main west entrance and the theater are
given red wall coverings that improve the 音响效果。 The Jade Hall
above the ‘forum’ is notable for its backlit cast glass plates made
of recycled 资料。

The 191,900 m² National Museum is the largest museum in the
world, its purpose being to act as a showcase for the history and
art of one of the oldest cultures of 人类。

Project data
Client National Museum of China
Design Meinhard von 格尔坎 and Stephan Schütz with Stephan 蕾沃尔
and Doris Schäffler
Design staff Gregor Hoheisel, Katrin Kanus, Ralf Sieber, Du Peng, Chunsong
Revised design Meinhard von 格尔坎 and Stephan Schütz with Stephan
Project leaders Matthias Wiegelmann with Patrick Pfleiderer
Staff Bao Wei, Johanna Enzinger, Anna Bulanda-J., Kong 荆, Andreas
Goetze, Guo Fuhui, Mulyanto, Chen Yue, Zheng Xin, Gao Hua, Xing Jiuzhou,
Helga Reimund, Tobias Keyl, Christian Dorndorf, Annette Loeber, Verena
Fischbach, Jiang LinLin, Liu Yan, Mehrafarin Ruzbehi, Yoko Uraji, Lu Han, Xia
Lin, Tian 荆hai, Uli Bachmann, 阿杰达 Guelbahar, Iris Belle, Sabine Stage
Structural engineering schlaich bergermann und partner, Stuttgart;
CABR, Beijing
Electrical engineering CABR
Landscaping RLA 雷瓦尔特 Landscape Architects, Dresden / Beijing
Event technology ADA Acoustic Design 阿纳特, Berlin
Lighting design conceptlicht GmbH, Traunreut;
TsingHua Design Institute, Beijing
Facade SuP 制定 GmbH, Darmstadt / Beijing
Acoustics Müller-BBM Group and ADA Acoustic Design 阿纳特
Chinese partner firm CABR (国文) Academy of Building 论述), Beijing
Project management Beijing Guojin Consultants Co., Ltd., Beijing

Key data of the building
Total floor space 191,900 m²
Total floor space of existing building 35,000 m²
New floor space 156,900 m²
Overall length/breadth 330 m × 204 m
Floors 7 (5 above ground, 2 以下)
Exhibition space 49 rooms
Size of exhibition rooms 500–2,000 m²
Height of exhibition rooms 5.25–12 m
Total area/length/breadth 8,840 m² / 260 m / 34 m
Height 27 m
Construction costs ¥ 2.5 bn / US $ 380 m

Project schedule
Bids invited August 2004
Revisions commenced Autumn 2005
Foundation stone laid March 2007
Museum completed 1st March 2011

The museum in operation
• the National Museum can accommodate up to 19,000 visitors at once
• up to 30,000 people a day can visit the National Museum
• the Forum can hold up to 14,000 visitors at once
• the National Museum owns over a million exhibits
• over ten thematic exhibitions on different aspects of art and international
exchange exhibitions can be put on in parallel

Other areas
Size of auditorium (影片) 300 m²
Seating capacity 264
Size of screen 12 × 6 m
Seating capacity 714

Exterior Light Chinese granite stone, sparkling steel and glass facade
Interior Light Chinese granite stone, black cherry panelling, sparkling and
bronze-coloured aluminium cladding, patinated bronze, red fabric

At all cardinal 点。 Visitors to the museum enter from the west and
north. The east entrance leads to the concert auditorium and 影片院。 The
south entrance is for staff. Deliveries and the entrance/exit to parking are in
the NE/SE 角。 The museum can be reached by metro, bus and car.











VIP area
Author: Christian Gahl

The Jade Hall above the Forum
The cinema below the Central Hall offers 264 seats
The ornamentation of the entrance doors recurs in the forming of the balustrades in the interior of the museum
Aside from the light Chinese granite stone, Black Cherry cladding was used inside the building
Author: Christian Gahl

The ornamentation of the entrance doors recurs in the forming of the balustrades in the interior of the museum
The forum helps the visitors to orientate, all public areas are accessible from here

The entrance doors to the new building consist of perforated bronze plates
Author: Ben McMillan

Photos of the construction site – green courtyards between the old building and the annex offer space for art, events and to 不情愿。
Author: Ben McMillan

Author: Stephan Schütz

Floor plan of Gallery Level
Floor plan of Entrance Level with access from north, south and east
Floor plan of Main Level – Forum, Main Entrance, Entrance Level west

Forum: Longitudinal section
Author: gmp